FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
FALLACIES: ERRORS IN REASONING
1) Personal Attack
Zainab: Dog is najis but we can still touch it as we touch our
Rejab: Haram to touch a dog. You are not an ustaz. You must
always listen to what an ustaz says.
2)Look Who’s Talking (cakap tak serupa bikin)
Rejab : Why do you backbite me?
Zainab: Why do you yourself backbite me that I backbite you!
3) Two Wrongs Make a Right
Rejab : Why don't you comb your hair when you come to class?
Awang: Why don't you iron your shirt when you come to class?
4) Red Herring
Zainab: Are you married?
Rejab: You will never want to marry me because I am not a
sweet talker. No one really loves and respects me. Don't ask such
a question to break my heart.
5) Begging the Question
Zainab: Why have you failed in your exam?
Rejab: Because I have not passed it.
FALLACIES OF INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE
1) Inappropriate Appeal to Authority
Einsten says that this hadith is authentic.
2) Appeal to Ignorance
Bring four witnesses to prove that you have not committed zina.
3) False Alternative
Choose either you are my enemy or my lover.
4) Questionable Cause
The reason why you failed in your marriage is because you did not get blessings from your parents.
5) Weak Analogy
Pigs are like dogs. Both are haram to be eaten.